—–. 1989. New Sentence structure and you will Semantics regarding Verb Morphology from inside the Progressive Aramaic: Good Jewish Dialect out-of Iraqi Kurdistan. American China Series, 69. The fresh Retreat: Western China Neighborhood.
Meehan, Charles, and Jacqueline Alon. 1979. The fresh new Kid Whose Tunic Caught to help you Your: An excellent Folktale throughout the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect from Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel Chinese language Training nine:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Facts and Record during the a routine regarding Lamentations into Ninth from Abdominal regarding Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect out of Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The publication out-of Exodus for the Neo-Aramaic throughout the Dialect of one’s Jewish Neighborhood out of Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Push.
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you will Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Get in touch with, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley and you can La: Univ. of California Drive.
Some other foundation complicating the difficulty ‘s the differential has an effect on of individuals co-territorial languages. The latest dialect differences contained in this Kurdish are particularly big, and to the feeling will be traced some of the adaptation among NENA languages. Like, the brand new Jewish Neo-Aramaic out of Halabja, for instance the Kurdish of the city, will not distinguish a gift and you will upcoming demanding, however, in which Kurdish holds for example a big difference, thus do Neo-Aramaic. During the Azerbaijan, Turkish has actually exerted strong affect the brand new Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), as well as the languages of basic out-of Mosul show a powerful influence from Arabic maybe not viewed somewhere else.
Tkhuma (Tx): The words regarding descendants of emigrants from a single of your own semi-separate ashirets away from southeast Chicken, today citizen along side Khabur Area for the Syria. Info is regarding Jacobi (1973) and you can my notes.
(5) Syriac had three earliest verbal stems, the fresh peal, the pael, and afel baÄŸlantÄ±yÄ± ÅŸimdi ilerletmek. To those were added around three couch potato stems, designed regarding first of those from the prefixation out of age[Theta]-: new age[Theta]pael, the fresh new elizabeth[Theta]paal, plus the ettafal. This situation exists throughout NENA. For the majority NENA languages, verbs have a tendency to stay in the new verb classes where these were utilized in before levels of one’s code. Which is, this new descendant out of good Syriac peal verb might possibly be an effective NENA Class I verb, and you may good Syriac pael verb will be good NENA Class II verb: particularly, Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ out-of prior to peal, and you will sadure ‘send’ away from before pael. Yet not, within the Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and perhaps Koy Sanjaq, the course registration has been reorganized and that’s foreseeable towards foundation of model of the fresh base in the place of the historical supply. Such as for instance, in the Azerbaijani the fresh C stem has got the setting CaCoC- having voice verbs, almost any their source, and you will CCaC- to own center-weakened verbs: garosen ‘I have always been pulling’, but kwasan ‘I (f.) have always been descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Another extremely significant advancement in NENA ‘s the third individual copula having l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This type get get (Noldeke 1868, 203) off we[Theta] leh ‘he has’, but zero copula adore it is situated additional NENA. The original and next person don’t have an enthusiastic l, except inside Jewish Azerbaijani, in which the l might have been generalized from paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:win ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is situated while in the NENA except from inside the Halabja, which has -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it ‘s the week away from mercy’. None Turoyo neither Mandaic possess forms synchronous so you’re able to ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he are here’, harke-no ‘I am here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he is charming’, basim-na ‘I was charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The outdated Aramaic term having ‘son’, bra for the BT, might have been prolonged in most NENA except Hertevin of the introduction of diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, private communication), Zakho brona (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 177). not, one another Turoyo and Mandaic features an enthusiastic epenthetic vowel, but zero suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and Mandaic eber otherwise ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) Oftentimes, Hertevin aligns that have Turoyo, contrary to the remainder of NENA. They lacks an effective CCaCa establish tense (6), does not have any sodir preterite (12), has no preposition ta (15), and you may spends ruh to create reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. The new Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect out-of Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Analysis and you may Folkloristic Messages. Janua Linguarum, series practica 3. The new Hague: Mouton.